Front cover - Green jobs
Policy paper

Policy Imperatives for Green Employment and a Just Transition

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Green jobs are defined as those that have a direct and positive impact on the planet. Traditionally, these include jobs in the fields of renewable energies, public transportation, energy efficiency, preservation of natural resources, neutralization of pollutants in wastewater treatment facilities and recycling, as well as environmental education. However, with the transition to a low-carbon economy, all industries in the economy have the potential to develop green jobs, including agriculture, nutrition, commerce, industry, the public sector, R&D, and more. The primary environmental crisis facing humanity today is the climate crisis. Dealing with it requires a change in the infrastructure of the productive economy and activities in a transition to a low-carbon economy. Additionally, adaptive preparation for the consequences of climate change in various areas of life is necessary to reduce its negative impact on human societies. Green jobs constitute an "economic multiplier." They create new jobs alongside a recession caused by the climate crisis, a major economic threat. According to the Global Economic Forum, all five of the most likely long-term economic risks are related to climate issues. Therefore, the climate crisis constitutes, among other things, an acute economic risk that, in a business-as-usual scenario, is expected to lead to poverty and widespread job loss, along with the loss of property and life. Green jobs, on the other hand, offer a twofold solution. Promoting and maintaining the principle of a Just Transition would provide a solution with exponential benefits. Moreover, under the sustainability approach, green employment is not only about jobs that reduce the direct negative impact of the climate crisis but also encompasses socially beneficial occupations such as social care, enforcement and policing, education and teaching. These professions not only mitigate the effects of human activities on the environment but also make a considerable contribution to society, directly and positively affecting the quality of life in Israel. Furthermore, they are necessary for implementing the principle of a Just Transition during the shift to a low-carbon economy, a principle its realization is essential for promoting Green Employment on a significant scale. Leading international institutions, including the UN, the OECD, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, agree that the transition to a low-carbon economy has the potential to contribute to economic growth in the medium and long term. Despite this overwhelming agreement, in the short term it poses the potential for a significant impairment to various populations. Workers, particularly in polluting industries, and their supporting secondary skilled workers, in which work will be significantly decreased. These workers tend to belong to the lower socio-economic populations and are expected to be hurt in the short term due to the expected transition. The scope of the required economic changes is extensive, cutting across sectors and social stratification, necessitating the exchange of current skills and jobs for new ones. Without paying attention to all those affected by the transition, adapting to it may take a toll on individuals, causing injustice, alienation to the change and threaten social resilience and social cohesion. Therefore, it must be ensured that the transition from the existing economic system to the new one is a "Just Transition," helping everyone navigate it with minimal damage and casualties. It is important to emphasize that the transition to a low-carbon economy will affect all strata of the population, especially disadvantaged and marginalized populations, who are the most vulnerable to the expected changes. This point is particularly crucial in Israel, where socio-economic disparities are relatively high, as is the rate of those suffering from poverty. Additionally, Israel's geographical location is characterized as a "Hot Spot" which manifests as a faster warming rate than the world's average, making it more susceptible to climate change and its climate change socio-economic resilience at a disadvantage. There is a broad consensus that promoting the transition to a low-carbon economy requires political intervention in the form of assertive regulation. This regulation should, on one hand, benefit workers already engaged in inherently low-carbon professions, such as those in the care economy, public transport and policing. On the other hand, it should actively work towards creating entry routes and fair conversion paths to green employment. In other words, despite the inherent environmental and economic benefits of the transition to a low-carbon economy and green employment, this transition will not occur without active political intervention. This document was written as part of the activities of the Israeli Climate Forum on behalf of the President's House and in collaboration with "Life and Environment," "Adva Center," "Heinrich Bell Foundation," and "Heshel Center for Sustainability." The document addresses policy measures to promote green employment and a "Just Transition" to a low-carbon economy and is divided into three chapters: A. A Green Entry into the World of Work - This chapter explores green career paths for those entering the workforce for the first time, including preferential jobs, professional and academic training. B. Existing Green Employment - This chapter discusses professions that are inherently low-carbon and offer high social benefits, constituting green employment. These professions include education, nursing and care, social work, public transport, policing and enforcement. Additionally, the chapter addresses individuals already at risk due to the climate crisis in health hazards related to their work, such as agricultural and construction workers, and proposes ways to legally and substantially protect them. C. A Fair Conversion to a Low-Carbon Economy - This chapter focuses on compensation and conversion mechanisms for those who will lose their jobs due to the transition to a low-carbon economy leading to closing factories and polluting industries. The conversion of the occupation blend includes retraining programs, financial compensation mechanisms, income guarantee mechanisms during the transition, community-employment programs and retraining options tailored to age and employment status. This document seeks to promote Green Employment and a fair transition to a low-carbon economy through various mechanisms. These include creating qualified bodies specializing in Just Transition—an area currently limited in Israel, providing immediate economic and social benefits to affected employees, encouraging retraining and supporting the process, incentivizing employers to absorb workers displaced from polluting industries, improving employment conditions for inherently low-carbon professions with social benefits, increasing the supply of professional training in green employment and implementing economic measures to encourage the establishment of green jobs, among others.

Product details
Date of Publication
December 2023
Number of Pages
Table of contents

כותבי המסמך      3

תקציר מנהלות      5 

8      The authors of the document

10    Executive Summary

רקע    14

תעסוקה ירוקה   14

מעבר לכלכלה דלת־פחמן    16

מעבר צודק    17

פרק 1: למידה מהעולם    24

מבוא    24

חקיקה להגנה על עובדים במעבר לכלכלה דלת־פחמן    33

ארה"ב: מקרה בוחן    53

המקרה הישראלי    57

פרק 2: הבניית מסלולי כניסה לתעסוקה ירוקה בראשית הקריירה    63

עבודה נדרשת     64

הכשרות מקצועיות במימון המדינה     68

אקדמיה     74

פרק 3: תעסוקה ירוקה קיימת - שיפור תנאי העסקה     77

מקצועות הטיפול     78

הכלכלה הסגולה     83

נהגים ונהגות בתחבורה הציבורית     83

שיטור ואכיפה     89

עובדים המצויים בסכנה בריאותית בעבודתם, כתוצאה משינויי האקלים     93

פרק 4: מעבר הוגן לכלכלה דלת־פחמן: תוכניות הסבה מיטיבות לפורשי תעשיות מזהמות     97

מיפוי שוק נוכחי ועתידי     98

סוגיות הסבה הוגנת עכשוויות בישראל    104

תוכניות מעטפת    109

תקציר הצעות קליניקת הכנסת    110

הצעות מדיניות    116

נושאים נוספים שלא נדונו במסמך זה אך דורשים התייחסות    118

סיכום והמלצות    120