Repurposing Electric Vehicle Batteries as Storage for Renewable Energy Sources
The transition from conventional vehicles to Electric Vehicles (EV) has been hailed for furthering efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. But EV batteries remain the weak link in this transition: Their elevated price is a major obstacle to massive EV adoption; they have notoriously short lifespans; and battery recycling is an economic, logistic, and technical challenge.
The secondary utilization of EV batteries for storing electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) could simultaneously advance the decarbonization processes in the energy, transport and waste-management sectors. It could provide a range of benefits for customers, utilities, and independent as well as regional grid operators in the energy market; increase the penetration rate of EVs by reducing their upfront cost; and, by postponing the recycling phase for used batteries, it could save resources and energy while reducing waste generation.
While the European Union has set regulations concerning the secondary usage of batteries, Israel has yet to implement any significant regulation regarding the management of EV waste that addresses the need for decarbonization strategies in the 21st century.
This study, therefore, analyzes the environmental, economic and regulatory aspects of using second life batteries, especially with regard to providing storage solutions for RES, with an emphasis on the Israeli and German cases. A series of recommendations is made in this paper, including standard-setting initiatives for EV batteries, labeling of EV batteries and government legislation.
Table of contents
1. Executive Summary
2. Rationale for Action on the Problem
3. Literature Review and Policy Options
- Batteries from Electric Vehicles
- Second Life of Batteries
- Transport Sector
- Potential Storage Capacity of Second Life Batteries for EVs
- Energy Sector
- Services Provided by Storage
- Regulation on Vehicular Waste Management
- Circular Economy
4. Policy Recommendations
- Scope of the European Union
- Scope of National Government (Germany and Israel)
- Scope of the Government of Israel